Chemical, Physical, Electrical, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Scandium (Sc)

Atomic Properties
Atomic Number21
Atomic Radius - Goldschmidt0.160 nm
Atomic Weight44.9559 amu
Crystal StructureHexagonal close packed
Electronic StructureAr 3d1 4s2
Photo-electric Work Function3.5 eV
Thermal Neutron Absorption Cross-section25 Barns
Valences shown3
Natural Isotope DistributionMass No.%
45100
Ionisation PotentialNo.eV
16.54
212.8
324.8
473.5
591.7
6111

Physical Properties
Boiling Point2831 °C
Density @20°C2.99 g cm-3
Melting Point1541 °C

Electrical Properties
Electrical Resistivity @20°C66 µOhmcm
Temperature Coefficient @0-100°C0.00282 K-1

Thermal Properties
Latent Heat of Evaporation7293 J g-1
Latent Heat of Fusion357 J g-1
Linear Expansion Coefficient @0-100°C12 x10-6 K-1
Specific Heat @ 25°C557 J K-1 kg-1
Thermal Conductivity, @0-100°C15.8 W m-1 K-1

Mechanical Properties
Material ConditionSoftHardPolycrystalline
Bulk Modulus44.2 GPa
Hardness - Brinell78136 
Poisson's Ratio0.27
Tensile Modulus79.3 GPa

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